by Prof. Dr. Andrej Zwitter, University of Groningen
After 44 years of reign by emergency powers, the Egyptian people forced President Mubarak to resign on 11 February 2011. While Egypt has ratified the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) in 1982, since then it has not declared any of its human rights derogations under Article 4 ICCPR as the State of Emergency Mapping Database illustrates.
by Asterios Bouzias, Dr. iur.
The “Arab Spring” led to series of constitutional transitions in the countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The process of constitutional change did not follow the same course in all these countries. According to the recent historical experience of the region’s countries, two patterns of constitutional change could be distinguished.